As far as I know, there is not an API available for the UI to request the information necessary from Ephemeris or other bindings to put those on the calendar.
Theoretically but it;s going to involve dynamically created Rules. You would need to have a rule that runs that creates other rules using the appropriate time based trigger based on calls to Ephemeris for the “it is a weekday” or any of the other Ephemeris based conditionals. Tag those dynamically created Rules with “Schedule” and they will show up in the schedule.
The same would have to be done for the Astro triggers, only around midnight the trigger would have to come from a DateTime Item linked to the civilDusk#start Channel.
This is on my todo list to implement for my TimeOfDay implementation because it would be cool to see the time of day changes on the calendar.
Obviously, though, this is going to be a whole lot of work.