There is a way to send a message with telegram to Openhab and receive the status of items?
For example with an inline keyboard?
Or suggestions for having the status of items remotely without using the cloud?
Yes, but you need to code your telegram bot for it.
Other options would be VPN to your local net so you can just access your openHAB, I would not suggest opening ports since there is no user authentication.
I try the telegram action add-on but there is only possibilty to send messages to the outside.
Would you indecate me how to be able to interact from the outside to openhab with telegram so that it answers me with the states of the items?
For example with node-red Tutorial on Telegram and Node Red - Interact with OpenHab
or with a python script Control OpenHAB2 with Telegram and simple python script
Everything already here in this forum
And don’t forget the new binding: https://community.openhab.org/t/new-telegram-binding-and-updated-action-tester-and-feedback-welcome
Is a new update of the official telegram action?
Read the linked post