Monitoring Thing Status

Is there any way to configure one general rule to detect when a thing (e.g. a bridge) goes offline?

Something like the following pseudocode:

  Thing * changes from ONLINE to OFFLINE
  sendTelegramAction("Thing * went offline")


Unfortunately not.

While it may not be an OH way to monitor the status of a Thing, if you are running OH on a linux distro you could leverage a tool called swatch (I believe there are other tools out there that also accomplish the same thing). Basically you install it, configure it to watch the OH events log and alert you if a Bridge or Thing go offline.

For some examples:

I notice the PaperUI shows my zwave things as online.
I understand that the info in the Paper UI comes through the REST API. That means there should be a way to do this.

EDIT I just checked the REST API on my server. Here is the status URL for Astro Sun.



  "status": "ONLINE",
  "statusDetail": "NONE"
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There’s no problem getting Thing status. There is even a way to get rules triggered by changes in Thing status. But there is no mechanism to bundle together some or all Thing status to trigger a common rule (and then figure out who dunnit). You have to list triggers x or y or z …

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Thing name in a variable in the message?

You can achieve that by being creative with the next-gen rule engine (NGRE) and the core.GenericEventTrigger module type and listen to a certain type of event, here ThingStatusInfoChangedEvent.
Unfortunately the trick is, this module type is “internal” so you can’t see it in Paper UI.
But you can use the Karaf console to add the rule anyway.

  • Create a file somewhere on your filesystem, for instance /tmp/thingstatus.json with this content:
        "uid": "thingStatusChanged",
        "name": "React to thing status changes",
        "description": "",
        "visibility": "VISIBLE",
        "enabled": true,
        "triggers": [
                "id": 1,
                "label": "When an ThingStatusInfoChangedEvent is received on a thing",
                "configuration": {
                    "eventTopic": "smarthome/*",
                    "eventSource": "",
                    "eventTypes": "ThingStatusInfoChangedEvent"
                "type": "core.GenericEventTrigger"
        "conditions": [],
        "actions": [
                "id": 2,
                "label": "execute a given script",
                "inputs": {},
                "configuration": {
                    "type": "application/javascript",
                    "script": "print(event.topic.split('/')[2]); print(JSON.stringify(event.payload)); print(event.toString());"
                "type": "script.ScriptAction"
  • From the Karaf console, run:
    smarthome:automation importRules /tmp/thingstatus.json
    (replace the file path accordingly)
  • You should now see the rule in Paper UI - though you can’t configure the trigger with the UI - and in this example every status change on (any) Thing will result in three lines printed on your log - the thing ID, the payload, and a human-readable message.
  • If this works (you can try it by disabling/renabling a thing), since there is no way afaik to call actions like Telegram, you’ll have to use an item to pass the message - replace the "script" value in the action by "events.postUpdate('LastThingStatusUpdate', event.toString());"
    You can change it in the file and call smarthome:automation importRules again.
    Then you can react on a change to the LastThingStatusUpdate item with a regular rule.

That’s delightfully devious!

Small notes; for luddites like me you must first install NGRE, misc feature Rules Engine (Experimental)
and a typo
smarthome:automation importRules / …

Some people take somebody saying it can’t be done as a challenge to do it.
OH is very flexible.

This should work actually. You have to import it but lewie’s and Scott’s helper library makes it relative eat l easy.

Writing a script that actually does something useful in JSON isn’t so fun, but it’s certainly possible as you demonstrate. It can be a way for those willing to get started with NGRE despite the limitations of PaperUI.

The PaperUI ised the rest api
Is NGRE part of the PaperUI, or can it be called separately from a Python script, for example?

PaperUI is … well, a UI. Rules is rules.

How would I access NGRE outside of PaperUI then? Is there a documentation link I missed?

Access in what sense? You can edit/create rules with PaperUI, but its not really developed. You can edit/create rules in a JSON file, and import them from karaf console - as illustrated a few posts back.
Once a rule exists, it gets triggered to run by system events, such as an Item update. If you wanted to ‘access’ in the sense of making the rule run, you’d need to cause the trigger i.e. update an Item.

NGRE is like most experimental things poorly documented. @rlkoshak is working on it.

If I am trying to use a different (my own?) UI uncoupled from OH, it could potentially use NGRE to put rules through the REST API into OH.

“Has worked on it” instead of “working”. The documentation has stalled because of limitations in PaperUI and the rapid and huge advancements Scott and company are making to the helper libraries I’ve stopped work on them, for now. I hope to be able to reuse maybe 50% of what is there now when we do pick back up on the docs.

OK, here is a quick tl;dr to explain the moving parts here.

PaperUI is a UI only, like rossko57 says. All that PaperUI does is present graphical elements to the user (forms and buttons) and converts the interactions with those into REST API calls. PaperUI is currently the only graphical way to create NGRE Rules.

The NGRE itself is a Rules Engine that currently supports the running of Rules written in Jython, JavaScript, and Groovy. JSR223 Rules are executed by the NGRE. Rules created by PaperUI are stored as JSON in the JSONDB, but despite this radically different form, these Rules too are executed by the NGRE. To a large extent, the NGRE represents a unification of the Rules Engine. Whether you create your Rules in text files or through whatever replaces PaperUI, it will be executing on the same engine.

So, if you want to start using the NGRE now, you can get started with JSR223 and the Helper Libraries.

The example JSON Yannick posted above is JSON Rules. This is the type of Rule that would be created through a UI/REST API. Instead of being saved to .js files, they get stored as JSON. The biggest difference between JSR223 Rules and JSON Rules is that in JSR223 you have to define your Rules and triggers and such in the code. The Helper Libraries makes this very easy to do, especially with Jython and it’s annotations. In JSON Rules, most of the stuff that defines the Rule is defined in JSON. The “body” of the Rule (in Rules DSL the stuff between the then and end goes in the actions.configuration.script element. In Yannick’s example, its a set of three print statements using JavaScript.

Note that “type” element. You can write your rule using any supported language for JSON Rules, not just JavaScript. Though PaperUI only supports JavaScript at this time. It’s also important to note that the Action need not be code when using JSON Rules. For example, right now I have the following choices for Actions:

  • enables or disable rules: this is going to be super powerful; imagine just disabling your night time Rules when the sun comes up, this works with JSR223 Rules too
  • execute a given script: see Yannick’s example, this is the closest to what we are used to doing with Rules
  • play a sound
  • publish an MQTT message
  • run rules
  • say something
  • send a command
  • send a web push notification to HABot

As you can see, individual bindings can add their own Actions to the list.

JSON Rules also have the concept of “but only if…” which I don’t think has an analog in JSR223 Rules (@5iver, is that true? I couldn’t find any similar concept in the Rules section of the Helper Library docs). This lets you establish a set of conditions which must be true for the Rule to trigger. Unlike with Rules DSL where all you have are events that trigger the Rule and then you need to use if statements in the body of the Rule to see if there is anything to do, JSON Rules have a separate section for this. As with Actions, you can write a full script for this or use one of the built in conditions (e.g. “it is a certain day of the week”).

Finally, I believe both JSR223 and JSON Rules have the concept of Rule Templates. These are pre-written Rules that you can import into your setup, perform some configurations (e.g. mapping your Item names to the parameters needed by the Rule). This will be huge! No more will we need to copy and paste examples from the forum for users to adopt some code. We can let the experts write the Rules for us and just use them as is.

On the Rules front, the future looks bright indeed.

As for docs, as you can see from the Helper Library docs, the language and ways to interact with openHAB is pretty well documented. There is very little documentation available for JSON Rules. Since JSON rules were never intended to be written by hand, this isn’t surprising. But the part that makes them “experimental” is the limitations of the UI part. The Rules themselves are mature and working very well.

Thank you for the detailed reply. I followed the link yo the helper libraries and got a little excited when I saw Python because I am currently learning & using that at work.
My heart sank when I saw it is Jython which is based on Python 2 which will be completely unsupported in January next year. :frowning:

No plans on supporting Python 3? It has been available for many years.

I am also working some on JSON. It is not as scary as XML :wink: I do not see JSON mentioned in the Helper Libraries.

Until OH can move to a more recent version of Java where Graal VM will be available, these are the only three languages that are available. I believe the target is to move to Java 11, but there are some upstream libraries around the Xtext libraries IIRC (upon which all the text config files OH loads like .items, .rules, .sitemaps, etc) that cannot run on Java 11 or later yet.

The hope is once we have Graal VM, we can support pretty much any language you can think of. I wouldn’t mind playing around with Clojure or some other functional language. Until that happens though, probably OH 3, we are stuck with Jython. If you really want to get started with Python 3 (honestly, for the purposes of Rules writing, I see little practical difference between Python2 and Python3 so even if you get started with Jython now, when Python 3 becomes available it should be minimal effort to move your rules over).

And if you really want to jump in using Python 3 from the start, there is Though because this runs as a separate application it is limited to only doing actions that can be done through the REST API.

Thanks, I saw that . I may look at Jython when I have a chance.
Thank you for your patient explanations & advice.

If you use a snapshot (and soon to be included in 2.5M2), all installed JSR223 supported script engines will be included in the Script Type dropdown for scripted Actions and Conditions. I added this right after 2.5M1 was released.

Unfortunately, all current bindings implementing Actions have used the AnnotatedThingActionModuleTypeProvider, which was not originally implemented for allowing the Actions to be used within a UI, so they will not work. Enhancing this class is being discussed. There is no visual que that Actions and Conditions are coming from a binding or core, so usage can be a little tricky ATM. Binding Actions do work in scripts though.

Conditions are available, but I haven’t implemented them in the helper libraries. They are really only useful in the UI, since they are essentially ‘if’ statements. Eventually, they will be expanded to ‘if/then/else’, which will be a milestone for UI rules, since the rules will no longer be linear paths with a single set of possible Actions. Too soon yet to dive into a discussion about this, and will required integration into the new UI (OH3).

The NGRE is also experimental because the APIs are not locked down and changes to them could break rules. I don’t foresee any major changes being needed ATM though, and development of the NGRE has settled down significantly after the business(es) using ESH stopped contributing. I hope to get a major changes implemented before OH3 though.

There are only some experimental (and TMK abandoned) Jython builds using Python3. When/if GraalVM is integrated, which is the logical evolution of OH scripted automation, you’ll be able to use newer version of Python. I see Rich has mentioned this, and I agree that there is very little you will miss using Python2 for scripting.

There are many other languages compatible with javax.script (JSR223). That repo is a fork from the scripting project, which is no longer available from Oracle. Jython, JS and Groovy are just the most popular for use with OH.